کتاب استبداد (بیست درس از قرن بیستم)

اثر تیموتی اسنایدر از انتشارات گمان - مترجم: پژمان طهرانیان-جدید ترین کتاب ها

این کتاب اثر بسیار جذابی است مخصوصا که می‌بینید برخی موقعیت‌های تاریخی چقدر شبیه هم هستند. اگر تیموتی اسنایدر ایرانی بود و در دانشگاه تهران تاریخ درس می‌داد، بعد از روی کار آمدن محمود احمدی‌نژاد این کتاب را نوشته بود. در این شک نداشته باشید! همانقدر که این کتاب مناسب جامعه‌ی آمریکا بود تا دیگر گرفتار امثال ترامپ نشوند، مناسب حال ما هم هست که گرفتار احمدی نژادهای بعدی نشویم... "

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خرید کتاب استبداد (بیست درس از قرن بیستم)
جستجوی کتاب استبداد (بیست درس از قرن بیستم) در گودریدز

معرفی کتاب استبداد (بیست درس از قرن بیستم) از نگاه کاربران
بي گمان كتابي ست خريدني و خواندني و هديه دادني
كتاب كوتاه است اما بسيار گويا و كاربردي ست و مظاهرش جا به جا در ذهن خواننده ي ايراني شبيه سازي مي شود و دائم به فكر فرو مي بردت از درسهايي كه در كتاب هست و تو بهشان دقت نكرده اي. بنابراين در اين احوال خواندنش بي اندازه ارزشمند است
كتاب ترجمه ي قابل قبولي دارد كه البته مي توانست با ويرايش بهتر هم بشود. برخي جاها مترجم جناب واحدي بيش از اندازه از زبان انگليسي گرته برداري كرده كه به گمان م لحن ترجمه را كمي خشك و غيرفارسي مي كند با اين حال كار ايشان در ترجمه بسيار ارزشمند بوده است و اينكه از نويسنده اجازه ي رسمي دارد برا بازگردان به فارسي كه خب اين هم بسيار عزيز است
نشر گمان با نهايت سليق كتاب را چاپ كرده است. طراحي جلد بسار به جا- كيفيت كاغذ مناسب- طراحي گرافيك و صفحه آرايي درخشان. درود بر ارجمندان نشر گمان

مشاهده لینک اصلی
اگر سری به کتابفروشی‌ها زده باشید متوجه خواهید شد که در عرض یک هفته سه نسخه ترجمه متفاوت از این کتاب منتشر شد.
کتاب واکنشی است به اتفاقات اخیر غرب از جمله ظهور ترامپ، لوپن و دیگر دوستان آنان و نیز تحکیم و تثبیت اقتدارگرایی پوتین در روسیه.

اسنایدر که مورخ و استاد دانشگاه ییل است از آنجا که تخصصش اروپای شرقی است این موج اخیر را بی‌شباهت به موج کمونیسم، فاشیسم و نازیسم که در قرن بیستم جهان را درنوردیدند نمی‌داند. هرچند شاید بعضی از مصادیق آن‌ها را بشود در این موج اخیر هم دید اما شاید ظهور ترامپ و لوپن را بشود خود یک مکتب جدیدی به اسم ترامپیسم/لوپنیسم نام نهاد و در حالتی کلی‌تر آن را پوپولیسم نامید.
این که چه چیزهایی منجر به ظهور این افراد شد خود بحثی جدا و مفصل می‌طلبد.

کتاب، کتابی علمی یا آکادمیک نیست. شاید در بهترین حالت تلنگری است، به خصوص برای غربی‌ها، که از حالت خوشی و سرمستی «پایان تاریخ» بیرون بیایند و جای اینکه بگذارند تاریخ و سرنوشتان ساخته شود، خود دست به کار شوند.

شاید 3.5 امتیاز عادلانه‌تری برای این کتاب بود ولی 4 نه. علت 4 ندادنم این بود که کتاب چیز تازه و عجیبی، لااقل برای من، نداشت.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Probably the most important book you could read this year. Please read it, then give your copy to someone else to read.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
I had read Timothy Snyder before. I still remember that even though much of it was challenging to read - much of it gave me chills to. The book Im speaking about is
@Black [email protected]:The Holocaust as History and a Warning...published in 2015.

And..... here again, Snyder is giving us a warning...and whats even more scary is some of the things he said in @Black [email protected] give me more concern for those chills -- because I never thought those warnings would manifest in our country just two years later.

This is an incredible worth reading quick read -its fricken sad it had to be written....

Given out current political situation- what stands out for me after reading this is....
If we survive as a democracy it will be going against history!

A small tidbit of interest that caught my eye in this book - was the section about politicians and television-- It was a reality wake up remember of how we have taken the collective trance to be normal.
@More then half a century ago, the classic novels of totalitarianism warned of the domination of screens, the suppression of books, the narrowing of vocabularies, and the associated difficulties of [email protected]
Snyder goes on to mention several worthy books to read....Rat Bradburys Fahrenheit 451, George Orwells 1984, Philip Roths The Plot Against America, .....
a few others...
And one I have not read -- that my goodness -- I actually now see reason to read it:
Snyder [email protected] novel known by millions of young Americans that offers an account of tyranny and resistance is J.K. Rowling Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallow.
If you and your friends or your children did not read it that way the first time, then it bears reading [email protected]

Twenty - very common sense lessons are in this small book - its only $3.99 on Kindle!
Highly worth readers time to read it!!!

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Please give my review a helpful vote on Amazon - https://www.amazon.com/review/R3PWF91...

A sad example of how ideology distorts scholarship.

I purchased this expecting a thoughtful discussion about the lessons that an academic can draw from 20th century totalitarianism. I was hopeful about something insight and depth from the author of Bloodlands, which did a really good job of bracketing Nazism and Communism into a coherent narrative.

This is not that book. To save those who might not know, author Timothy Snyders central thesis is that the current Republican President is Literally Hitler. Of course, this should probably not come as a surprise. Every Republican president is Literally Hitler during their tenure, and then they are rehabilitated as the Model of Bipartisanship to be used against the next Republican President who is Literally Hitler. George Bush is now in the middle of rehabilitation as the Model of Bipartisanship, but there are those of us who remember that not so long he was Bushitler.

I expected better.

I wanted to give Snyder some credit for some his observations. Some of his points about tyranny are classic and memorable.

Unfortunately, I have to wonder where he was for the last eight years. During the last eight years, many people of faith have felt that they were under the heels of a tyranny that threatened to divide us from the rest of America and make us give up our freedom of conscience in order to avoid governmental oppression. The 2016 presidential campaign began, let us remember, with the perennial Democrat shill George Stephanopolous asking an off-the-wall question about contraception. Pretty soon, we saw a presidential campaign largely framed around the idea that Catholics were UnAmerican dissenters who irrationally refused to pay for contraception. The Little Sisters of Poor were required to toss a pinch of incense to appease abortion lest they face draconian penalties that would end their historic mission of caring for the poor. Likewise, we saw the government centralize and make a grab for a substantial part of the economy with that mis-named Affordable Health Care Act, that carried with the unprecedented intrusion into personal life and personal decision-making by requiring that Americans divert upwards of 20% of their income into the purchase of health insurance to the enrichment of insurance companies.

Although any of this could be described quite easily as @[email protected], we heard nothing from Snyder.

Likewise, the last eight years has seen an unprecedented normalization of hostility to free-speech, as colleges have instituted speech codes and rules against triggering and have assaulted and intimidated people who didnt adhere to the progressive line.

But, again, nothing from Snyder.

During the last presidential campaign we saw videos of the losers side attacking, hitting, punching throwing things at, and assaulting those on the presidents side. Weve seen riots in the aftermath of an election and attempt to get Electors to violate their oaths.

One might have seen in this the image of Brownshirts and the destruction of democracy by ignoring the spirit of the law, but, again, nothing from Snyder.

Similarly, we remember that under the former president, the IRS was used in an unprecedented way to harass and target conservatives. One might view this as an unhealthy fascist tendency.

But, again, crickets from Snyder.

It is an interesting feature of Snyders slim book - which is easily read in a single sitting - that it is so conservative. For example, Snyder gives teh very good advice that @institutions should be [email protected] Quite right, but notice this from his book:

@It is institutions that help us to preserve decency. They need our help as well. Do not speak of “our institutions” unless you make them yours by acting on their behalf. Institutions do not protect themselves. They fall one after the other unless each is defended from the beginning. So choose an institution you care about—a court, a newspaper, a law, a labor union—and take its [email protected]

That is good advice, but I was amused at what his advice omitted. My amusement stemmed from my lengthy reading into the Kirchenkampfe. Snyder omits @[email protected] Obviously, churches were a major institution in the resistance against totalitarianism, although Snyder seems to omit this point. In a later section, he manages explains how Polish workers allied with atheist scholars to bring down Polish Communism without mentioning John Paul II or the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church gets one reference here when Snyder observes:

@The one example of successful resistance to communism was the Solidarity labor movement in Poland in 1980–81: a coalition of workers and professionals, elements of the Roman Catholic Church, and secular [email protected]

@[email protected] As if the Primate of Poland, the Bishops of Poland and the Pope were just @[email protected] And this is from a history professor.

I have to wonder about this. Is it just the case that a Yale professor lives in such a secular bubble that he edits the data to form his arguments? Or is it the case, that he wanted to stay away from the tyranny of the prior eight years? Or is he simply an urban elite entirely out of touch with the country that voted for the president? I found this to be a not very edifying example of scholarship.

So, Snyder is strangely quiet about one kind of institution, but he is very conservative in his demand that everyone pay proper deference to the press and support it with money and loyalty.

And here again one wonders where Snyder has been for the last sixteen years. It has come to the point where everyone knows that the mainstream press is an arm of one political party, which isnt that of the current president. Even Communist China has pointed out that media was biased in favor the loser. The press has an approval rating lower than that of a cold sores because people have seen the press blatantly misrepresent facts. The time is long gone when the press cant be fact-checked in real time and stories that were run during the prior administration cant be found by a simple internet search and set against current stories to show the slanting and bias of press coverage.

On the other hand, the most independent and professional reporting is often found among amateur bloggers who have real experience, and, while they may have a bias, are not pretending that they dont.

Snyder would properly have compared the modern mainstream press to the Gleischaltung version of the press that existed in 1933 Germany if he wanted to make a fair comparison.(Given the revelation through Wiki leaks that there were media members who running their stories past the Clinton campaign, Gleischaltung is not too strong a word.)

Here is another example:

@17 Listen for dangerous words. Be alert to the use of the words extremism and terrorism. Be alive to the fatal notions of emergency and exception. Be angry about the treacherous use of patriotic [email protected]

How about @[email protected]? Or homophobe? Or Islamaphobe?

Such things do exist, but it seems to me that Snyder is entirely unaware of how @dangerous [email protected] are used by his tribe to stifle speech and mark people as @[email protected]

Here is an example where Snyder goes unhinged:

@14 Establish a private life. Nastier rulers will use what they know about you to push you around. Scrub your computer of malware on a regular basis. Remember that email is skywriting. Consider using alternative forms of the internet, or simply using it less. Have personal exchanges in person. For the same reason, resolve any legal trouble. Tyrants seek the hook on which to hang you. Try not to have [email protected]

This may be good advice, but Snyder is injecting poison into the body politic by teaching people that they are presently at risk.

Of course, those who are not on the left have known this for awhile. Brandon Eich was fired by Mozilla because of a progressive campaign that was manufactured on the outrage that Eich had dared to participate in politics by donating to one side of a California Initiative that was passed.

Sadly, we are at a point where private citizens are targeted for things they say on Facebook and the people who target - on both sides - justify their mean-spirited actions by saying that their target was a bad person because the person voted this way or that or violated some piety or other.

I was disappointed in some rules that Snyder didnt offer. Here are a few:

1. Beware of those occasions when someone you like begins to cut away at the spirit of restraint that previously existed. Hitler might not have been able to get his Enabling Act if Kurt von Schleicher had not led the way with his own efforts to circumvent the Reichstag.Likewise, although Democrats cheered, and the media was silent, when Harry Reid exercised the nuclear option, it did set a precedent now that the Fascists control Congress. Similarly, there was loud cheering for the former presidents use of executive decrees, but what precedent did unilaterally changing immigration law set for the new president?

At various times during the former presidents administration, I was put in mind of the dangerous precedents he was setting, not unlike that of Schleicher. See

2. Beware of the Coordinated Press. The press has to be truly independent. If it becomes a lapdog for one party, it cannot fulfill its job of being a watchdog. A population that has seen it be a lapdog for eight years will probably not pay it much attention when it continues to serve the interest of the party that is out of power.

3.Beware of Charismatic Leaders who are called the Lightworker and make vapid claims about @Hope and [email protected] and being able to stop the rise of the oceans.

4. Beware of opponents of federalism and advocates of centralizations. Hitler eliminated the federal states and centralized power, such as coordinating political and economic power, such as creating a centralized health insurance system.

Snyder is histrionic. The fomer president may not have seemed like an authoritiarian, but to those who were put to the choice of religious convictions or penalties, the former president was very authoritarian. Nonetheless, only those on the fever-swamp did not believe that the former president was not going to surrender power to his successor. The current president seems to have an authoritarian personality - some might say New Yor personality - but his policies tend away from authoritarianism. Eliminating the ACA is a pro-federalist position. Reducing the size of government is anti-authoritarian.

Certainly, the media will be there to expose him.

And does any sane person really think that the president will not surrender power to his successor exactly the same way that the former president gave up power?

Snyder is doing no one any good with this paranoid fantasy.

We survived the former president as a democracy. We will survive the current president as a democracy.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
Snyder, a professor of history at Yale University, has written a pamphlet reminiscent of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense which was written in 1776, at America’s beginning. Snyder’s pamphlet contains twenty admonitions for us to consider as we pay attention to the political environment we see right now in the United States. The first sentence of Snyder’s Prologue brings us right back to our founding fathers, the Constitution, and the democratic republic they envisioned.

It’s a small book, the quarter-page size running slightly more than one hundred pages. I love short books. “Tell me what you’re thinking and let me think about it,” is how I view it. However, in this case, the brevity may leave a few notions unclear. We need to be careful in reading, combing it over until our questions are clarified, calling them out and talking with others about them if not.

There is no reason for me to deny I agree with Snyder’s take on the present administration and the henchmen that carry out the damaging policies dreamed up by our thoughtless, fearful leader. For that reason I was all set to clap through a review, stamping it with my approval. Imagine my surprise, then, to find myself slowing down and viewing what Snyder has decided to spotlight with a critical eye.

The very first point Snyder makes caused me to back up, circle around, scratch my head until it finally dawned on me that we probably agree. What Snyder says is 1. Do Not Obey in Advance which in my parlance would be, “Do not anticipate your leader’s orders.” The example he gives is
“In 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union, the SS took the initiative to devise the methods of mass killing without orders to do so. They guessed what their superiors wanted and demonstrated what was possible. It was far more than Hitler had thought.”
Snyder goes on to say that “anticipatory obedience means adapting instinctively, without reflection.” Yes, I agree that the eagerness to be agreeable can make fools of us. Even if we are in the uniformed services, Snyder argues, we have the responsibility to 7. Be Reflective if You Must Be Armed. “Be ready to say no” and stand up for our values.

19. Be a Patriot. The word patriot has been so bandied about we are no longer sure what it means any more. Snyder tries to help us think critically about this concept. In addition, he exhorts us to remain skeptical and 11. Investigate and still 10. Believe in Truth. The world is changing rapidly and dangers are all around us. We must 17. Listen for Dangerous Words and do not allow words to be hijacked and used against us. We can reclaim our vocabulary and the language of reason, but it requires speech, action, dissent.

To give us feel a measure of stability and solidarity in a political world in which we no longer have faith, Snyder suggests we 2. Defend Institutions: we created institutions to protect citizens from changes in attitudes and government. We must defend them now, when they come under attack, so that they continue to be able to protect us when needed.

And when Snyder exhorts us to 3. Beware the One-Party State, he means
“We believe we have checks and balances [in government], but have rarely faced a situation like the present: when the less popular of the two parties controls every lever of power at the federal level, as well as the majority of statehouses. The party that exercises such control proposes few policies that are popular with the society at large, and several that are generally unpopular—and thus must either fear democracy or weaken it.”
We must be strong, 18. Be Calm When the Unthinkable Arrives, and 20. Be As Courageous As You Can. “If none of us is prepared to die for freedom, then all of us will die under tyranny.” When I read these words I thought of the bravery of the man in the white shirt holding grocery bags in each hand who stood in front of rolling tanks during the Tiananmen Incident in China in 1989. It wasn’t just that man who showed extraordinary bravery, but the soldier in the tank whose orders were to reach the square. He stopped, disobeying orders, and for all he knew, would bear the wrath of his superiors. That’s when we know the values hold and the country is not irreparably broken.

#Resist

مشاهده لینک اصلی
If this is the response to creeping fascism in America, we are in trouble.

(Note: for suggested alternatives see comment stream below.)

Obviously, Hitler is bad. And some of the advice is unassailable (Contribute to good causes, etc.) But beyond that, the little essays that make up this book seem pretty messy.

-Before Hitler comes to power, it makes sense to stand up, speak out, etc. But after, its more about getting out or going underground. If the author really believes that Trump is Hitler and that Americans have had our last free election, then much of his advice is dangerously counterproductive.

-He says to read books, but Mein Kampf was a book, and Trump supporters love to read lots of books. So this is not a differentiating factor between Trump/Hitler and the alternatives.

-In the first chapter he talks about the Milgram experiments. The finding there was that about 65% of people will obey evil orders for no good reason. So using this as a rationale for the lesson @Do not [email protected] is confusing. A more logical lesson would be @Be careful about what you order people to [email protected]

-There seems to be a general confusion about what applies to ordinary citizens vs. what is possible for a world leader like Churchill (Ch. 8).

-He recommends a bunch of books, but it is hard to see these becoming popular manuals for promoting democracy. The Rebel by Camus, for example, is a lengthy philosophical discussion of why it is so hard to get people to rebel against tyranny. This brings up a question that struck me many times while reading @On [email protected]: what is the audience for this pamphlet?

-Ch. 10/11 @Believe in truth, and [email protected] bugged me. You dont need to believe in truth. The truth is true whether you believe in it or not. Reality exists. You can know the truth. This is very difficult and nobody can do this for every issue, but you can do it for something. And if youre not willing or able to do it for anything then you can just shut up and admit ignorance and not be all fanatical about it. Because blindly trusting NPR or FOX or Clinton or Trump is still blindly trusting.

مشاهده لینک اصلی
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